FIRST-AID:
ANIMAL BITES
BLISTERS

GEAR:
HAMMOCKS
PACK/GEAR

SHELTER:
SNOW CAVE
SNOW PIT
SNOW/TENT
TENTS

SURVIVAL:
ESSENTIALS
FOOD/NUTRITION
KEEP WARM
SURVIVAL TIPS
The Cheap Trekking :: Überlist
PLAN YOUR TRIP WELL IN ADVANCE!

• ALWAYS leave trip itinerary with family or friends at home!
• route, # in group, return time, destination emergency contact information
• Make sure someone looks for you if you don't check in by agreed upon time
• Research the area conditions!
• Know when, where, how the trip will work
• Determine daily mileage based on terrain weather
• Average walking speed on level surface is 3 miles per hour
• Will route be on a trail,off trail,or mixed
• Will snow level be shallow or deep
• Snow type: powder, packed, breakable crust, or mixed
• Steep grade trails increase travel time drastically
• Have a backup plan! Know alternative routes and campsites
• Talk to Rangers when planning trip and before hitting the trail
• Remove valuables from car, leave glove box console open
• Leave a change of clothes in your car for a dry ride home

THE 14 ESSENTIALS:
1. MAP:
• Study it BEFORE you need it!

2. COMPASS:
• Know how to use it! Practice at home!

3. FLASHLIGHTS:
• Even on day trips, unexpected travel after sunset is dangerous!
• Waterproof - 1 regular, 1 headlamp
• Difficult switches to avoid turning on in your pack

4. EXTRA FOOD:
• 1 days extra supply. At least, one good pre-cooked meal

5. EXTRA CLOTHING:
• A little more than normal, in case of emergencies

6. SUNGLASSES:
• 100% UV, emerald green, polycarbonate lenses
• Glacier glasses with side shields if on snow

7. FIRST-AID KIT:
• Band-aids & bandages, CPR mask, rubber gloves, etc.
• Bring "Mountaineering First Aid", by Lentz, Macdonald, and Carline

8. POCKET KNIFE, TOOLS:
• Multi tool, or Swiss Army Knife, and a fixed blade

9. MATCHES:
• Water windproof, strike-anywhere, something to strike on, waterproof container

10. FIRESTARTERS:
• Magnesium blocks w/ striking flint
• Treated fire sticks, or make your own- candles, saw dust, wood shavings

11. WATER/FILTER/BOTTLES:
• Call ahead, confirm available water, bring plenty of your own
• Best water is from bubbling springs after rain or snowmelt
• Major rivers are often contaminated
• Streams may be contaminated even in the cold of winter
• Dig a hole near a stream and it fills up with filtered water
• Filter, treat, or boil water, unless an absolute emergency
• Boil 3-5 minutes +1 minute per 1,000 feet above sea level
• Boiling is best winter method
• Boiling does NOT remove hazardous chemicals and metals
• Chemicals require more time to treat cold water
• 5 drops of 2% Tincture iodine per liter of water
• All filters are not created equal
• Water filters freeze seals crack. Drain, keep filters warm
• Flavored water does not freeze as quickly as plain water
• Add snow to water or pot will scorch before snow melts
• Melting Ice produces more water than snow
• Strain trash out of snow water with a coffee filter or bandanna
• Flip water bottles, ice forms at bottom instead of in cap
• Don't eat snow! hypothermia risk, wastes energy keeping warm
• Solar Water Collector:
    Dig depression in snow 2 ft x 1 ft deep
    Cover with black plastic
    Pack snow around edge, it will melt, collect in bottom
• Keep water from freezing by storing under a foot of snow
• Wide mouth water bottles dont freeze easily
• Keep water bottle next to your body to keep it from freezing
• Insulated water bottle holders keep water from freezing
• Keep water bottles in sleeping bag to prevent freezing
• Avoid thin ice, tie cord to water bottles, lower into water

12. WHISTLE:
• Plastic, no moving parts, metal freezes to lips

13. INSECT REPELLENTS:
• DEET or Picaridin for skin
• Permethrin for clothes
• DEET damages synthetic materials, packs and tents
• Bug netting, wear loose, stingers penetrate tight clothes

14. SUNBURN PREVENTION:
Higher elevations = increased sun intensity
Snow reflects the sun giving twice the exposure
Cover skin, light colored clothes, large brim hat
SPF 15+ water resistant sunscreen, lip-balm


ADDITIONAL ITEMS TO TAKE--
• Duct tape
• Extra buckle for hip belt on pack, steal one off smaller pack
• Extra shoe laces for your boots
• Quick energy drink, 2 ounce concentrated
• Rain gear, poncho
• Instep crampons reduce slipping on ice or hard packed snow
• Walking sticks help keep your balance on icy or snowy trails
• Extra socks, rotate often, wet feet are cold feet
• Altoids Tin- Storage, Stove,  boil water
• Newspaper- fire tinder
• Panty Hose- prevent blisters, water filter, belt, net,
• Binder Clip
• Paper Clip
• Pencil
• Batteries
• Playing Card Deck
• Condoms
• Safety Pins
• Dental Floss
• Shoelaces
• Matchbook
• Thread
• Makeup Mirror

THINGS TO DO--
• Pump out water filter after each use to reduce weight
• When resting, loosen shoes, raise feet to reduce swelling
• Eat before hungry, drink before thirsty

AROUND CAMP STUFF--
• Stuff fleece or down jacket into a stuff sack to make a pillow
• Protect your food with a bear bag hung with the PCT method
• Animals will eat through expensive tent & packs. Hang food in tree
"Light my fire" spork.
Titanium cooking pot, large insulated plastic cup.
Tie the spork to the cup
Reduce pack weight and trash, leave food packaging at home


FIRST-AID--
ANIMAL BITES-
RABIES

*** DON'T WAIT FOR SYMPTOMS! ***
*** ONCE SYMPTOMS APPEAR, YOU WILL DIE WITHIN DAYS ***
*** MUST BE TREATED WITHIN 10 DAYS OF BITE ***


• If you suspect the animal has rabies, see a doctor immediately
• More common in raccoons, skunks, bats, coyotes & foxes than cats or dogs.
• Rabbits, squirrels and other rodents rarely carry rabies
• Not found in fish or reptiles (mammals only)
• Wash with soap & water as soon as possible for 5 minutes
• Apply tincture iodine to the wound after washing
• Flush eyes, mouth & nose well with water
• Apply antibiotic cream & cover bite with clean bandage.

*** SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY! ***

SNAKE BITES


Most North American snakes aren't poisonous.

Some exceptions:
• Rattlesnake rattles rings at end of tail
• Water moccasins' mouth looks white like cotton
• Coral snakes have red, yellow, black rings along length of body
• Copperhead

All North American poisonous snakes, except the coral, have slit-like eyes, triangular heads with a depression, or pit, midway between the eyes and nostrils.
The coral snake color pattern is not consistant worldwide, so don't trust a rhyme.
Walk cautiously, never touch ANY snake even if you THINK it isn't poisonous.
If you encounter a snake, back away slowly.
Most snakes only bite when threatened or surprised.

If a snake bites you:

• Remain calm
• Immobilize the bite, stay quiet to keep the poison from spreading
• Remove jewelry before swelling
• Position the bite below the level of your heart
• Clean wound, do NOT flush with water, cover with clean, dry dressing
• Use a loose split to reduce movement, do not restrict blood flow
• Don't use a tourniquet or apply ice
• Don't cut the wound or attempt to remove the venom
• Don't drink caffeine or alcohol
• Don't try to capture the snake, but describe it to doctors
• Call 911, seek immediate medical attention

BLISTERS:
Bisters are caused by friction-
Friction results from ill fitting shoes, improper socks, or moisture

BLISTER- PREVENTION
Hike Goo Blister Prevention
• Buy shoes with room for feet to swell
• Break-in around house and day hikes
• Wear synthetic sock liners under synthetic or wool socks
• Wear wicking socks, change to dry pair as needed, hang on pack to dry
• Reduce friction with sportslick, bodyglide, or vaseline
• Cover hotspots immediately with moleskin, GlacierGel pads, or duct tape
• Don't hike in new boots. Improper fit causes blisters and may contribute to frostbite by limiting circulation.

BLISTER- TREATMENT
• If you can tolerate the pain, keep the blister intact.
• Broken skin risks infection.
• Cover a small blister with an adhesive bandage.
• Cover large blisters with porous, plastic-coated gauze pad that absorbs moisture and allows the wound to breathe.
• If you're allergic to the adhesive used in some tape, use paper tape.
• If you have diabetes or poor circulation, call doctor before considering self-care measures below.

• Reduce blister pain by draining the fluid but leave the skin intact.
Here's how:
• Wash your hands and the blister with soap and warm water.
• Swab the blister with iodine or rubbing alcohol.
• Sterilize a clean, sharp needleby wiping it with rubbing alcohol.
• Use needle to puncture several spots near the blister's edge.
• Let the fluid drain, but leave the overlying skin in place.
• Apply antibiotic ointment to blister, cover w bandage or gauze pad.
• Cut off dead skin after several days, with scissors sterilized in rubbing alcohol.

DEEP WOUNDS-
• Apply pressure with clean, dry cloth to stop bleeding, see a doctor.
• If signs of infection, swelling, redness, increased pain or oozing, see doctor immediately.
• Get a tetanus shot every 10 years. If shot was 5 years ago and wound is deep or dirty, doctor may recommend a booster as soon as possible after the injury.


HAMMOCKS--
They just sleep better :)
• Braizilian style diagonal sleeping are the most comfortable
PACKS / GEAR--

Internal frame packs:
• Have lower center of gravity, hug body better, better agility

External frame packs:
• Higher center of gravity
• Away from body, back stays cooler, but less agile
• Store food in food bags, not in your pack, pockets or tent
• Hang food bags from tree so wild animals won't pilfer them at night.
• Put sleeping bag, clothes, in trash bag, roll closed to keep dry
• Use sleeping bag rated 15 degrees below minimum temperature
• Down or Primaloft mummy bags with hood, draft tube zipper, collar
• Wash your pack w soap and water, rinse well once a year
• Rodents will eat nylon just for the flavor of dried sweat.

SNOW SHELTERS-- Do NOT sweat or get wet constructing these shelters.
Take your time, be careful, conserve energy

SNOW MOUND (Quin-zhee)

- Stick a center marking pole in the ground
- Pile snow at 35 degree angle, around pole, until shelter size plus 2 feet
- Allow snow to settle 2 hours
- Dig entrance on side away from wind until pole is reached.
- Excavate the interior around marker pole
- Poke stick through wall to check thickness
- Poke vent in roof to ventilate

SNOW CAVE
- Dig cave up into a hillside so door is below sitting level.
- Dig cave down under branches of trees covered with snow.
- Always make ventilation holes

SNOW PIT
- Dig pit 6 ft wide X 3 ft deep (for 4-6 people).
- Pile excavated snow around the perimeter.
- This gives a deep area, protected from the wind.
- Carve out benches, cooking counter, etc.
- Line floor with insulation materials, evergreen boughs etc.
- Roof of ski poles, then evergreen, then tarp, cover with snow
- Ventilation hole in roof. Keep stick in hole & shake to keep open
- Entrance is tunnel below & to the side.
- Tunnel is below pit so colder air stays lower than pit
- Door can be hard packed snow plug

SNOW MOUND TENT HYBRID
• Pile snow on tents windy side while help provides support inside
• Dig out pit in front of door
• Snow sets up a better insulated hybrid tent-snow shelter

General Snow Shelter Information
• Dig a kitchen trench 2' D X 2' W. Sit with feet in trench and eat on opposite side.
• Use snow flukes, special snow stakes, or skewers for tent anchors
• Fill gallon freezer bags with snow, tie to cords for deadmen tent anchors.
• Leave no trace, don't dig down to soil, let springtime melt camp site
• Pack snow B 4 tent setup, avoid freezing uncomfortable shapes under bed.
• Setup tent in snow pit to block wind.
Deeper pit under vestibule makes entering tent easier
• Attach longer cords to tent, 4' - 6', to tie to rocks or logs in case ground is too frozen or snow too soft
• Winter rated tents are stronger to withstand high winds heavy snow
• Vent tent at night, reduce condensation. Being dry is worth losing some heat
• Hang tarps between trees protect camp site from the wind
• Three-sided A.T.-style shelters can be used comfortably in the winter by hanging a tarp across the open side to block the wind. The result is a roomier and sturdier place to sleep, cook, and pack. Tarps are much lighter to carry than winter tents
• Make camp out of the wind, 50' above valley floor or low area cold air
• Exposure -south facing areas will give longer days and more direct sunlight.
• When setting up camp, pick a flat, leafy area for the tent. It'll be softer and will drain better, so you won't wake up damp. Setting up Camp Leave your snowshoes or skis on & tramp down areas for tents and your kitchen. If possible, let the snow set up for 30 minutes or so, this will minimize postholing once you take snowshoes or skis off. Stake tents out. On a cold night you can build snow walls on wind side. Put your foam pads in the tent and unstuff your sleeping bag and place it in the tent so it can "expand" from it's stuffed size

TENTS--
• Do not cook in a tent! You will die!
• Set up tent doors 90 degrees to the prevailing winds
• 3 season tents are lighter with weaker poles
• 4 season tents are stronger domes for wind & snow loads
• Dome tents shed snow & provide efficient interior space
• Winter tents are larger for extra gear & extended stays
• Rainfly is a must
• Breathable wall with fly reduces condensation, provides insulation with unmoving air space layers. • Typically a tent will be 10-20 degrees warmer than the outside air (once your body is inside heating it up)
• Black Diamond Megamid- A single, center pole, pyramid tent with no floor. Require staking but are quit roomy. Add a space blanket as a floor, and covering the edges with snow, you can seal off the tent quite well
• Hang a frost liner for moisture to pass through yet protects from ice
• Brush ice off of inner tent walls and sweep outside to avoid getting wet
• Bring extra tent poles, or pole splints in case a pole breaks
• Place a ground sheet under tent to protect floor from sharp ice
• Sweep snow off boots, clothes, out of tent to reduce condensation, stay dry

KEEP WARM!--
THE SCIENCE OF HEAT PRODUCTION and CONSERVATION

• Heat "TRANSFERS" from warm to cold surfaces
• Our body creates heat that is lost through "transfer"
• Clothing does not CREATE heat, it TRAPS it against our body

To stay warm- 1. Produce heat   2. Prevent heat loss/transfer

1. Produce Heat:
• Our body must burn fuel to produce heat
• To increase heat production, eat more fuel and exercise
• Always pack plenty of high calorie snacks
• Eat before sleeping, snack during the night if you wake
• Stay hydrated, but decrease fluid intake at night to empty bladder before sleep
• Place chemical warming pads inside clothing or sleeping bag
• Place warm rocks or water bottles inside clothing or sleeping bag

2. Prevent Heat Loss/Transfer:
• To prevent heat loss/transfer, understand HOW it occurs-

CONDUCTIVE- contact transfer from warmer to colder surfaces
• Avoid contact with cold surfaces. Sit on foam cushion
• The more dense the material the faster the transfer
• Non moving "dead" air is less dense, slows heat transfer, insulates
CONVECTIVE- cold air blowing across bare skin
• Block wind with tarps or snow walls
EVAPORATIVE- when moisture evaporates on skin
• Stay dry, don't sweat, change clothing, dry clothes, repeat
RADIANT- thermal radiation of heat

USE LAYERS TO FIGHT THE WAR AGAINST HEAT LOSS/TRANSFER-

THE LAYERING PRINCIPLE
• There really is a science to those layers ;)

BASE: Polypropylene -wicks moisture from skin before heat transfers
• Should fit snug and touch skin. Wool smells better but dries slower
VAPOR/RADIANT BARRIERS clothing and bag liners
INSULATION: Trap heat with down, fleece, wool, or all three
SHELL: Gore-Tex blocks wind & rain yet sweat vapor escapes

Layers for hands- liners, gloves, then mittens & waterproof shells

VAPOR / RADIANT BARRIERS-
Insensible perspiration is water lost when air humidity is below 70%, & averages 1/2 quart per 24 hours. Our body also produces radiation that escapes the body similar to heat felt from a fire even though the air temperature is below freezing.

Vapor / Radiant Barriers:
• Reflect thermal radiation back into the body
• Block body moisture from entering sleeping bags
• Inhibit insensible perspiration by raising the humidity above 70%
• Cause the body to shut down perspiration before getting wet
• Prevent evaporative heat loss, & slow dehydration
• Should not touch skin, wear a wicking polyproylene layer
• Improve sleeping bag warmth 10 - 15 degrees
• Decrease activity & don't sweat while wearing a vapor barrier.

TYPES of INSULATING MATERIALS-
Down:
• Best warmth-to-weight ratio, period.
• Compresses extremely well for transport
• Compresses while you sleep, requires insulated pad & fluffing
• Absorbs moisture, dries slowly, leaves you cold

Synthetic:
• Insulates even when wet
• Heavier than down, but getting better
• Doesn't compress like down, good for sleep, bad for packing
• Primaloft closest to down in warmth-to-weight ratio
• Thinsulate warmer than down but heavy

FEET
• Boot OUTER shells- oiled leather or plastic or they absorb moisture and freeze
• Put warm water bottles in boots to prevent them from freezing at night
• Change socks often, wet or moist socks will not keep your feet warm.
• Open boots wide when removing to prevent freezing in a closed position.
• Insulated booties keep feet warmer around camp than hiking boots.
• Layer socks- moisture wicking liner sock, then 1 - 2 pairs of wool or wool/nylon blend socks.
• Outer sock layers must fit comfortably. Too tight will restrict blood flow.
• Put antiperspirant on feet for several days before trip to reduce moisture
• Mukluks - knee high moccasins, comfortable, breathable high gaiter
• Camp Overboots - are shells with an insulated bottom. Worn over insulated booties around camp or late night toilet trips.
• Put a bottle of warm water in your boots and stick them in a stuff sack to keep them from freezing overnight.
• Keep socks, shoes, & gloves loose, allow blood flow to warm fingers & toes
• Gaiters keep snow, rain out of boots, feet dry, warms lower legs.

HANDS
• Attach cords to mittens, prevent loss in windy or snowy conditions
• Mittens are warmer than gloves since fingers touch, share body heat
• Layers on hands- liners, mittens, waterproof shell with long sleeves
• Carry extra gloves or liners in case your first pair gets wet

SLEEPING
• Sleeping bags should snugly conform to your body
• Avoid big bags with large space for chilling convection currents
• Sleep in extra layers or use filler to take up bag space
• Silk bag liners add 5-10 degrees of warmth to your bag
• Vapor barrier liners, used correctly block body moisture from entering bag
• Inserting sleeping bag in a bivy sack adds 5-10 degrees
• Overbags are summer weight bags which add 15-20 degrees
• Double bags only if enough room to be comfortable in the bag.
• ALWAYS use at least one pad under sleeping bag to insulate from cold ground
• Don't breathe moisture into bag. Cinch tight, breathe through balaclava
• Warm your clothes inside sleeping bag before getting dressed.
• Hot water bottle between legs against femoral artery quickly warms body
• Open sleeping bag, hang to dry trapped moisture inside
• A layered sleeping system (sleeping bag, liner, half bag, bivy sack) reduces frost buildup when body warmth meets cold air.
• Avoid overheating at night, go to bed dry. Being too warm produces perspiration, so vent your bag or take off your stocking hat.
• Ensure feet and socks are as dry as possible before bed.
• Use dry sleeping socks or polarguard booties for sleeping only.
• Sleep in clean long underwear stored in your sleeping bag.
• Wear loose fitting clothing to bed so it doesn't restrict circulation.
• Keep your sleeping gear clean. Dirt clogs air space in the material reducing insulation value.
• While sleeping, keep feet warm by inserting them in an "elephant foot", half bag, or jacket, inside foot of sleeping bag.
• Fill water bottle with hot water place it at any cold spots in your sleeping bag.
• Snacks before bed provide fuel to generate heat during the night
• Exercising before sleep warms the body and a cold sleeping bag.
• Don't dry clothes in sleeping bag overnight. Too much moisture in bag insulation will make you cold.
• Fluff up your sleeping bag with vigor to gain maximum loft.
• An insulating pad under a sleeping bag is as important as the bag.
• Hot rocks in wool socks help warm sleeping bag, careful, don't melt it
• Hot water in bottles warm bag cold spots prevent frozen bottles
• Large disposable heat packs help warm feet in sleeping bags
• Urinate in a bottle, don't leave a warm tent. Holding it wastes energy
• Unzip sleeping bag in the morning to remove moisture, and shake the bag to restore loft.
• Fuel - plan on 1/4 quart per person per day if you need to melt snow for water.
Plan on 1/8 quart per person per day if water will be available.
Make sure you have at least a day's surplus of fuel in case of bad weather, water being unavailable, etc.
• Winter requires more fuel for your body AND your stove.


GENERAL INFORMATION
• Hike with reduced layers, you will warm up as you hike
• Attach your mittens with cord so they don't blow away, get lost.
• Tie loops of cord around bottle necks to make them easier to carry.
• Tie cord to zippers, easier to pull with mittens or cold fingers
• Put electronics dry in plastic bags and keep from freezing.
• Cold does NOT kill batteries, but they perform better warm.
• Always sit on a foam pad to avoid heat loss to the frozen ground.
• Lightweight insulated coffee mug for hot drinks or soups at mealtime.
• Chemical heat packs warm feet and hands for several hours.
• Tight clothing, socks, boots, restrict blood flow making you cold
• Don't breathe inside sleeping bag. Breath will freeze in the insulation.
• Clean clothing insulates better as it fluffs to trap more warm air
• Sleep in clean clothes, a clean sleeping bag performs better
• Proper hydration is required for body to be efficient, keep warm.
• Insulate water bottles in cases, socks, or taped foam
• Winter requires lots of extra fuel for cooking and melting snow!
• Keep lids on pots to help keep your dinner warm
• One pot meals or stews are more efficient and require less fuel
• Carry your water bottle inside your parka to keep it from freezing
• Practice, spend a weekend in the back yard or small park
• Don't do a serious backcountry trip without testing all of your gear!
• Everything is more difficult in winter, give yourself extra time, daylight is short!
• Wear sunscreen, sunglasses or goggles in winter, reflection off snow gives twice the harmful rays.
• Side zipper pants ventilate, can be added with boots on.
• Bibs/overalls prevent cold spots at junction between tops and bottoms.
• Velcro is better than snaps that fill with snow and freeze.
• Do not allow snow to melt into clothing, it will refreeze as ice, brush it off, jump around, etc.
• Don't cool down too much, it takes a lot of calories to heat up again so layer up ASAP before you get chilled.
• Have extra socks and lightweight shoes to wear in camp, your feet will thank you.
• Light insulated mugs for hot drinks or soups, keep warm longer than metal cups
• Wind - avoid ridge tops and areas where wind can blow down tents or create drifts.
• Be aware of "widow makers", dead branches hanging in trees.
• Avoid low lying areas where the coldest air will settle.
• Avalanche danger - select sites that do not pose any risk from avalanches.


• Avoid long breaks, keep moving, snack often, stay warm
• Stay hydrated, but avoid night fluids and caffeine
• Avoid caffeine at night, it keeps you awake, increases urine
• Dehydration significantly increases risk of hypothermia
• Snacks at bedtime gives your body fuel to generate heat during the night
• Exercise before bed, warms your body and sleeping bag
• If cold, tired, eat extra snacks, drink water. Digestion burns energy, creates warmth
• Drink plenty of water, Frequent, clear urine indicates proper hydration
• Wear toboggan or balaclava, avoid losing body heat through your head
• Gaiters keep snow and rain out of boots to warm lower legs, feet, toes
• Dead air space is achieved through layers of clothing
• Sweat, more dense than air, is natural way to cool body, 25X greater than air
• You lose heat quickly through evaporation of sweat or water if wet
• Convection may be greatest heat loss. Must have wind PROOF outer layer
• Clothes should fit properly but not too tight
• Tight clothes compress, reduce dead air space in layers
• Polypropylene against skin wicks sweat, reduces evaporative heat loss
• Increased distance between skin and evaporation decreases heat loss
• Adjust clothing layers, prevent sweating.
• To keep your face warm, wear a balaclava or wrap a scarf around your face.
• Always wear a warm hat. Most heat loss is from your head.
• Armpit zippers vent heat AND moisture
• Water PROOF clothing traps moisture, soaks clothes, makes you cold
• Carry extra gloves or liners
• Carry plenty of dry socks
• COTTON KILLS! Wet cotton loses insulating ability
• Wool or synthetics are best for cold temperatures

General night sequence -
• Exercise and warm up before bed, DO NOT SWEAT! This helps warm your sleeping bag.
• At tent door, brush off snow and dirt with wisk broom. Sit down inside tent door, remove and brush off boots.
• The more layers you wear the better insulated and the warmer you will be (contrary to the myth that says sleep in your underwear). However, too much clothing can compress dead air space in the bag and reduce its effectiveness.
• Put warm water bottles in the foot of sleeping bag to help keep your feet warm.
• A hat and polarguard booties are recommended to help keep you warm.
• If you wake at night, move around, increase circulation, generate some heat, eat some protein for fuel.
FOOD/NUTRITION--
Caloric Requirements:
• Couch potato- 1,500 calories
• Sedentary occupation- 2,500 ~3,000 calories
• Regular Backpacking- 3,500 ~4,000 calories
• Winter Backpacking- 4,500 ~5,000 calories

Simple Carbohydrates:
• Candy, honey, anything sugar rich
• Convert quickly to give bursts of energy, but quickly fades
• Eat to get the day started or help finish that long hike

COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES:
• Grains, legumes, & vegetables
• Convert more slowly, no burst, but longer lasting
• Eat during the day to provide lasting energy

FATS:
• Cheese, margarine, butter, oils, nuts
• Digest slowly & can slow you down during exercise
• Eat in the evening for slow release heat energy while sleeping

PROTEINS:
• Meat, eggs, dairy products, grains, & legumes
• Do not provide energy rush
• Eat to renew muscle tissue

• Avoid alcohol, it thins blood, and the body's ability to warm itself.
• Eat big, high calorie, dinner. Calories are fuel the body burns to keep warm.
• One-pot meals are easier to cook in the winter.
• We need water to generate heat. Clear urine indicates proper hydration.
• Winter requires extra fuel for cooking and melting snow.
• Carry a small thermos of hot drink or soup for a warm snack.
• Drink hot decaffeinated drinks in the evening to help keep warm.
• Insulated mugs keep drinks and soups hot at mealtime.
• Multiple small meals maintain energy levels better than fewer large meals
• Pack mostly dry foods: cereal, pasta, rice, wheat, oatmeal
• Pack baked goods: brownies, cookies
• Freeze dried food, light, cook quick, save stove fuel, expensive
• Powdered milk adds protein, vitamins to any meal.
• Dehydrated foods require a lot more water to rehydrate than freeze dried.

BREAKFAST- FOUNDATION OF THE DAY

• Be careful of flooding the bloodstream with too much sugar
• Eat a good mix of all three major food types.
• Sugars get you started, proteins & fats keep you going through the morning.
• Easy hot meals: oatmeal with hot milk & margarine, hot Tang,
• Granola with hot milk, hot Jello, hot chocolate with extra milk & margarine.

LUNCH-

In both cases you should include all the food groups by having some of the following items: meats, cheeses, nuts, dried fruit, raisins, cookies, candy, granola bars. In the case of an "eat through the day lunch" a general formula is to take the following per person per day: • 1/2 - 3/4 lb. GORP - raisins, peanuts, M&M's, sourballs coconut, chocolate morsels etc. •• 1/4 - 1/2 lb. Lunch Meat and/or Cheese - cut into bite size chunks so you don't break your teeth - Cookies, brownies, peanut butter, bagels, etc.
COOKING TIPS and TOOLS--
DINNER
• Have a hot, decaffeinated, drink for internal warmth while cooking
• Save fuel, stew rice or noodles, vegetables, protein
• Spice it up, an interesting meal is essential to get you to eat.
• Conclude dinner with a hot decaffeinated drink & possibly dessert.
• Before bed, heat water for personal water bottles at night
• Eat fats & proteins if you wake to release heat during the night

SURVIVAL TIPS--

• If lost, stop, start signaling, wait.
• Wandering makes you harder to find, wears you out, leads to panic.

• Don't cross moving water above your waist.
• Don't cross streams barefoot.
• If you must cross a stream, it is safer to cross in a pair or threesome in a circle like a football huddle. Shuffle feet to avoid getting a foot caught, loosen your pack shoulder harnesses and waist belt. If you fall, drop the pack immediately. You don't want to weigh yourself down midstream.